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The long list of important battles in WW1 is full of names familiar to most of us ... Mons, Somme, Gallipoli, Paschendaele, Cambrai ... to name just a few; and we've all heard of Gallipoli and Jutland. Even as locals we might be forgiven, for not being aware of the Battle of Manchester Hill in 1918 (so named because in April 1917 the position had been taken from the enemy, at great cost, by the 2nd Manchesters). However, for the City of Manchester, and at least 79 families, 12 of which came from around Oldham, the centenary, in 2018, had painful significance.
To go back to 1914 ... the 16th(S) Battalion of the Manchester Regiment was one of Kitchener's New Army Battalions. It was the 1st City 'Pals' Battalion and, with the 17th, 18th and 19th Manchester 'Pals', was part of the 1st City Brigade. It was formed in August 1914 and, after training, arrived in France in November 1915, with the Brigade, as part of the 30th Division. By March 1918, the Battalion was no longer comprised of just local men, as the previous two and a half years of active service, in France, had taken a substantial toll on their numbers, and was not always brought back to strength with local men.
Putting Manchester Hill into context, for what was to come in 1918, we know that in December 1917, following the October Revolution, Russia agreed a ceasefire with Germany. This enabled Germany to rush back great numbers of soldiers from the Eastern Front and reinforce its army on the Western Front. In early 1918, and aware of this, the Allies expected Germany to make an all-out attack on the Western Front, with the intention of over-running a great part of France and taking key strategic areas. The Allied Command expected the offensive to be sooner rather than later, and were conscious of the fact that they had to hold on at all costs until American reinforcements could arrive in numbers significant enough to make a difference to the outcome. The German command also knew this and realised that it might be their last chance to gain control of key areas.
To counter the anticipated attack, the greatly overstretched allied line relied on a series of forward positions incorporating strongly defended redoubts, within a defensive area surrounded by a continuous belt of barbed wire, and covered by observation posts. The main line of allied defence was about a mile further back and the aim was to break up the attacking wave of enemy troops, and create as much havoc and disorder as possible, before they reached the main allied battle zone.
This attack would become known as the German Spring Offensive, and lasted, on 4 connecting stretches of the Western Front, from March 21st to July 1918. The main areas of attack stretched from the River Somme to the north of Ypres.
Five Battalions of the Manchester Regiment were defending the line in front of St. Quentin, on the 21st March, 1918, of whom 346 men were killed in action and remembered on the Pozieres Memorial. Of these a total of 94 were from the 16th(S) Battalion; 78 were NCOs and privates, and 16 were officers. A further 12 soldiers died of their wounds in the following few days.
"On 21 March 1918, the German army launched its Spring Offensive with Operation Michael. The Germans massed some 65 divisions and more than 6,600 artillery guns along the 46 mile front from Arras to Le Fère. At first just 26 British divisions were holding the line".
[From CWGC website]
Initially, the planned offensive was successful, breaking through the allied lines and sweeping into France, although with heavy casualties sustained on both sides.
Over 8,000 British soldiers lost their lives on the first day of the Spring Offensive.
However, the offensive was so successful that it became a victim of its own success as the German army over-reached itself and out-ran its supply lines and necessary reinforcements. The turning point came in August when, with the American reinforcements arriving, the Allies launched a successful counter-offensive, rolling back the German troops until their surrender and the subsequent Armistice in November.
In March, a few days before the anticipated attack, the 16th Manchesters had been given the task of defending Manchester Hill. Just a mile and a half to the east, St Quentin was held by the Germans. I've found no better description of the position than the following two extracts from : 'Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth Battalions : the Manchester Regiment : 1st City Brigade : A Record of 1914 - 1918', published in 1923 :
[in St. Quentin] "... the Germans had made a tremendous concentration of guns to support the coming grand attack. Safe in the hollow the vast army of storm troopers waited, for our artillery had been instructed not to shell this large and important French town heavily."
"... Manchester Hill was a tactical feature of great strength. It was not a high eminence, but rather a bare swelling undulation, commanding an admirable field of fire in every direction. It was backed by the 'Brown Quarry' on its reverse slope which afforded excellent cover and location for dugouts. On either side clearly defined valleys were commanded by machine guns. It was a position naturally strong, and the trace of its trenches, the location of its posts, the organisation of its cross fire and the strength of its wire rendered it, for a clear day, almost impregnable. Mere penetration on a narrow front is of little value to the enemy if the garrison of important tactical localities hold their ground.
The principle of defence and depth combined with the system of redoubts on the back area of the Battalion led to very extended areas being given to Battalions to hold, and the sector held by the 16th had a frontage of 2,000 yards and a depth of nearly 2 miles."
21st March, 1918 - Manchester Hill - 16th Battalion, Manchester Regt.
Critically, the weather would play a devastating part in the events of that day, the first of the German Spring Offensive. All was quiet during the clear, moonlit night before the attack but, at 6:30am, the Germans began artillery bombardment of the Allied position.
Disastrously, by this time, the valleys overlooked by the Manchester Hill machine gun posts, were shrouded in thick morning fog giving the enemy soldiers all the cover they would need. At 7:30 there still appeared to be no troop movement from the enemy lines and the German shells were landing behind the allied sectors. Just after 8am the bombardment increased, destroying some internal communication telephone lines on the Hill. At 8:30 came the first news that the attack had started ... that 'A' Company HQ, and then 'B' Company HQ, were practically surrounded. The thick fog had given the attackers all the help they needed to approach completely unseen ... but the defenders were not prepared to surrender until all hope was lost ... they could disrupt the German advance even if they couldn't halt it.
At 9am came the news that the soldiers on the left flank of the redoubt were fighting "at close quarters with the enemy", and was repeated again in respect of the right flank. Desperate fighting raged on, as the fog lifted in the late morning, and the enemy could be seen breaking through the line on both sides of the Hill, isolating it, and leaving enough troopers behind to "settle with Manchester Hill"
But the defenders would not capitulate ... led by Col. Elstob, and surrounded, they fought against tremendous odds as every man in the redoubt rallied around the Colonel. He was already the holder of the M.C. and D.S.C. and, despite being injured 3 times, continued to lead them until he was shot, and killed instantly, in the late afternoon. The remnants of the garrison in the redoubt, wounded, exhausted and now leaderless, surrendered.
From : 'Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth Battalions : the Manchester Regiment : 1st City Brigade : A Record of 1914 - 1918', published in 1923
"Though Manchester Redoubt was surrounded in the first wave of the attack (and Lt. Col. Elstob was thus prevented from exerting command over the rest of the Battalion) it held out until late in the afternoon ... Sometime after this (3:20pm) the post fell, overcome by vastly superior forces, supported by guns, brought close up. Of the original garrison of 8 officers and 160 other ranks, only 2 officers and 15 other ranks survived."
Lt. Col. Elstob was awarded the Victoria Cross, posthumously, in 1919. His body was never recovered and, as with a those who fought alongside him and whose bodies were not recovered, he is remembered on the Pozieres Memorial.
Lt. Col. Elstob's citation for the Victoria Cross reads :
'For most conspicuous bravery, devotion to duty and self-sacrifice during operations at Manchester Redoubt, near St. Quentin, on the 21 March 1918.
During the preliminary bombardment he encouraged his men in the posts in the Redoubt by frequent visits, and when repeated attacks developed controlled the defence at the points threatened, giving personal support with revolver, rifle and bombs. Single-handed he repulsed one bombing assault driving back the enemy and inflicting severe casualties.
Later, when ammunition was required, he made several journeys under severe fire in order to replenish the supply.
Throughout the day Lieutenant-Colonel Elstob, although twice wounded, showed the most fearless disregard of his own safety, and by his encouragement and noble example inspired his command to the fullest degree.
The Manchester Redoubt was surrounded in the first wave of the enemy attack, but by means of the buried cable Lieutenant-Colonel Elstob was able to assure his Brigade Commander that "The Manchester Regiment will defend Manchester Hill to the last."
Sometime after this post was overcome by vastly superior forces, and this very gallant officer was killed in the final assault, having maintained to the end the duty which he had impressed on his men - namely, "Here we fight, and here we die.' He set throughout the highest example of valour, determination, endurance and fine soldierly bearing."
Account by Sheila Goodyear, courtesy Oldham HRG website HERE
Pt. 39652 Ernest Armitage, 16 Beech St., Oldham
Ernest was born on the 22nd March 1891 in Stockport, Cheshire, the only child of Irvin and Eliza Eleanor Armitage (nee Cardwell.) Irvin was a wallpaper designer and by 1911 the family were living in Austerlands where Ernest was a grocer's assistant. By the time he joined up in November 1915 Ernest was living at Beech Street, Oldham.
Pt. 29462 Henry Clough, 49, Lord St., Ashton-under-Lyne
Pt. 36276 Timothy Curtin [Curtain] 10, Maple St., Oldham
Timothy was born in Earlstown in the third quarter of 1878, the son of Timothy, a tailor, and Mary O'Brine. Sometime after 1881 the family moved to Oldham. By 1911 his father had died and he was listed as the head of the household at 10, Maple Street, Hollinwood. Living with him were his mother Mary, his two brothers, John and Cornelius and his mother's sister Ellen. His occupation was a stove grate fitter.
Cpl. 28248 John Willie Hall, 126, Chapel Rd., Oldham
John was born in Moorside, Oldham in 1889 the son of Joseph Hall, a coal mine hewer and Hannah Mary Wild. His occupation in 1911 was a cotton spinner and he was living at home in Moorside with his parents, two brothers and a sister. In the third quarter of 1917 he married Sarah Ann Chapman at St. Thomas' Church, Moorside and was living in Hollinwood by the time he was killed. He is commemorated on the Memorial Chapel Screen of St. Thomas' Church, Moorside. 126 Chapel Rd., Oldham
Pt 46817 (signaller) Alfred Holt Hopkinson, M.M., 396 Manchester Rd Oldham
Alfred was born on 19th June 1893 at 81, Abbey Hill Road the son of Charles, a warehouse man, and Alice (nee Holt). He was baptised on August 22nd 1893 at Glodwick Trinity Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, Waterloo Street. His parents had 5 children of whom only 3 were living in 1911 - Alfred, Alice and Samuel. At that time they were living at 491, Shaw Road, Royton. Alfred's occupation was a cotton mule piecer.
Alfred joined up in October 1915. and he was awarded the Military Medal for gallantry in action on 6th January 1918.
His military record contains a desperate letter from his mother, Alice, dated the 31st April 1918, a month after the battle, asking if there is any news of her son. In another part of the record there is a witness account of another soldier dated 19.3.19 in which this soldier states he was with Alfred in the battle and that he was severely wounded in the head and that he believed he died shortly afterwards.
He is commemorated on the Royton Park War Memorial.
Pt. 35688 Ernest Jackson, Ashton
Pt. 48590 Richard Mills, 75, Shaw Rd., Oldham
Richard, a piecer in a spinning room, was born on 4th February 1886 at Wrigley Yard, Heap Street, and was baptised at St. Peter's Church, Oldham, the son of Joseph, a self actor minder, and Catherine (nee Leeming.) After the death of his mother in 1895 his father married Mary Hannah Kershaw and by 1901 the family were living in the Waterhead area. In 1911 the family had moved to Shaw Road. His stepmother had also died and the family consisted of Richard's father Joseph, his brother John, his half brother Joseph, his paternal Grandmother Sarah and his aunt Sarah Mills.
Pt. 352329 Charles O'Neill b. Ashton
Pt. 37648 John Wasley Pickering, 52, Cranbrook St., Oldham
John was born on the 1st December 1895 in Clayton Bridge, the only child of William, a railway porter and Emma Wasley. He was baptised at the Primitive Methodist Chapel in Droylsden. The family seemed to move around and were living in Blackpool in 1901. However by 1911 John was living with his Aunt Amelia Goulden, his mother's sister, and his five cousins at 51, Roundthorn Road. His occupation at this time was a speed fitter ironworker.
Pt. 401099 George Richardson, Ashton
Pt 302736 Samuel Steel, 3, Joel Place, Oldham
Samuel was born in 1895 in Chadderton, the son of Samuel B Steel, a card room hand, and Hannah Davies. His parents also had a daughter Alice. Samuel's occupation was a spinner in a cotton mill.
On the 27th December 1914 he married Alice Egerton at St. Matthew's, Chadderton. Sister Alice was a witness. The couple had two children - Fred, born in 1915 and daughter Elsie born in 1917. Sadly Elsie died a year later, a few months after the death of her father. Samuel's widow Alice continued living at 3, Joel Place until she married Frank Barlow in August 1923.
Lance Corporal 29617 William Thompson, M.M., 4, Nova Scotia St., Failsworth
William Thompson was born on 15th March 1891 at 4, Starting Chair, off Hollins Road, Hollinwood. He was the son of Joseph, a coal dealer and Harriet Thompson (nee Barber) who had married at St. Margaret's Hollinwood on the 23rd December 1890. His parents were living with Joseph's mother Caroline Owen and step-father Joseph Owen at the time of his birth. He was baptised at St. Margaret's Hollinwood on April 22nd 1891. William was the eldest of 14 children.
By 1901 the family had moved to 4, Nova Scotia Street, Failsworth and they still lived there in 1911 by which time William had a job as a cotton piecer in one of the many cotton mills in the Failsworth area. By this time two of his siblings, Doris and Albert, had died leaving 4 brothers and 4 sisters still alive. The youngest was Walter at just one month old. A further three daughters were born to Joseph and Harriet after 1911.
It is believed that William first enlisted under the Derby Scheme joining the army reserve then, probably sometime in 1916, he was called into service joining the Manchester Regiment with the service number 29617.
Sometime before 1916 he moved to Newton Heath, where he was living at 128, Gaskell Street when he married Emily Greenhouse at All Saints' Church, Newton Heath, on 9th September. His occupation on his marriage certificate was a stripper and grinder which meant he maintained the cotton machinery in a cotton mill. The witnesses were Lavinia Greenhouse and David Cotton. William and Emily's son Frederick, was born around this time.
By mid 1917 William was serving with the 16th Battalion in Belgium. The 31st July, the first day of the battle of Passchendaele, saw the Regiment in action attacking the Zillebeke Bund. The rain turned the ground into a sea of mud. During this attack William displayed an act of gallantary for which he was awarded the Military Medal which was reported in the London Gazette of 28th September. Probably sometime later that year William returned home on leave. This is known because he can be seen with his son Frederick in a photograph at the top pf this page. By 1918 William had been promoted to Lance Corporal and was serving in France. He was a member of C Company of the 16th Battalion. On the 21st March he was killed at the Battle of Manchester Hill.
Like most of the fallen of that battle his body was not found.Emily was left with a small son and was supported by her parents, Frank and Sarah, returning to live with them at 7, Dixon Street. On the 18th October 1924 she married James Bentley at St. Wilfred's Parish Church, Newton Heath. Frederick was brought up by James Bentley and all of them lived at 65, Queen Street, Newton Heath where they can be found on the1939 Register, Frederick having a job as a loom overlooker of heavy cotton.
William Thompson is remembered on the Memorial of St. Wilfred's Church, Oldham Road, Newton Heath which is now located at All Saints' Church, Culceth Lane.
His medals, The Military Medal, The British War Medal and The Allied Victory Medal, can be seen at the Museum of the Manchester Regiment.
William's entry in "Museum of the Manchester Regiment - Men Behind the Medals" website is HERE
All of the fallen soldiers are commemorated on panels 64-67 of the Pozieres Memorial, France.
Pt. 50264 John Herbert Cusick, Oldham, died 9th April 1918
Pt. 48790 James Dawson, Hollinwood, died 1st April 1918
Pt. 54699 John Fish, Failsworth, died 1st April 1918
(See his page on the Oldham HRG website HERE
Pt. 37814 Crispin Lamb, Hollinwood died 23rd March 1918
Biographical research on the soldiers by Sue Forshaw
Compiled from : Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth Battalions : the Manchester Regiment : 1st City Brigade : A Record of 1914 - 1918', and from the CWGC website.
Officers Killed in Action:
Lieutenant Colonel Wilfrith Elstob, VC, DSO, MC. Son of the Reverend Canon John and Frances Alice Elstob of, “Fanshawe”, Chelford, Cheshire. Commanding Officer, 16th Battalion
Captain Edward Neville Ashe, MC. Only Son of Mr and Mrs Edward Ashe, of “The Coppice” Hale, Cheshire. (8th Btn., Manchester Rgt.), attached 16th Battalion. Officer Commanding A Company.
2nd. Lieut. Charles Lewis (6th Btn. Manchester Regt.) attached 16th Battalion.
Captain-Adjutant Norman Sharples. Son of William and Margaret Ann Sharples, of 7, Palatine Avenue, Withington, Manchester. Adjutant, attached 16th Battalion.
Capt. O.T. Pritchard
A/Capt. J. Guest
A/Capt. P.H Heywood
Lieut. J. Clarke
2nd. Lieut. J.A. Bentley
2nd. Lieut. J.A. Birchenough
2nd. Lieut. W. Dean
2nd. Lieut. F.J. Durrant
2nd. Lieut. F. Hayes
2nd. Lieut. F.W. Keeling
2nd. Lieut. M.D. Pleasance
Pte 39652 Ernest Armitage,16 Beech St, Oldham
Pte 54657 Charles Joseph Aspley, Whitney on Rye, Hertfordshire
L/Cpl 47541 Frederick George Baker, Highbury, London
Pte 50994 Frederick Bean, West St, Helpston, Peterborough
Pte 59178 Ernest Victor Bell, 22 Portland Rd, Sydenham, Kent
Pte 11472 Thomas Benn,16 Bingley St, Bradford, Manchester
L/Cpl 7360 Robert Bennett,11 Knowles Sq Pendlebury
Pte 43101 Lawrence Bunting,10 East View, Carcroft, Doncaster
Pte 54671 John James Butler, Crewe Rd, Wheelock, Congleton
Pte 203236 Myles Carrigan, 90 Sherwood St, Collyhurst
Pte 43208 Samuel Cartwright,117 Old Rd, Heaton Norris, Stockport
Pte 29462 Henry Clough, 49 Lord St, Ashton
Pte 27100 Elijah Collinge,101 Hendham Vale, Manchester
Pte 41783 Harry George Collins, 24 Brownlow Rd, Willesden
Pte 41857 William Crimmins,7 Fisherton St, Marylebone, London
Pte 36276 Timothy Curtin (Curtain),10 Maple St, Oldham, Lancashire
Pte 6233 James Thomas Dawson,16 Park Grove Rusholme
Pte 252611 Joseph Devon, 68 Edgeware Rd, Edge Hill, Liverpool
Pte 303305 Edward Donnelly,7 Spring Terrace, Crumpsall
Pte 54691 Harry Edwards, Brook Farm, Bunbury, Cheshire
Pte 23960 Daniel Farrell, Salford
Pte 11543 Tom Fitton (MM) 298 Bury New Rd, Whitefield
Pte 276724 Harold Frost, 28 Melbourne St, Ardwick
Pte 377029 Arthur Ivan Gilman,49 Low St, Diss, Norfolk
Pte 54706 Anthony Glover,101 Oswald St, Accrington, Lancashire
L/Cpl 27307 Oswald Green, 23 Richmond St, Wigan
Pte 25268 Albert Greenfield, 43, Horton Rd., Rusholme
Cpl 28248 John Willie Hall,126 Chapel Rd, Oldham, Lancashire
Cpl. 21412 Harold Heathcote, Salford
L/Cpl 46701 John Hall Henderson, Kelso, Roxburghshire
Pte 31211 James Hockney,52 Melbourne St, Gorton
Pte 46817 Alfred Holt Hopkinson,396 Manchester Rd, Oldham
Sgt 6630 Archer Hoye, 214 Radnor St, Hulme, Manchester
L/Cpl 35688 Ernest Jackson, Cheetham Hill, Manchester
Pte 49421 John Joseph Joyce,105 Reather St, Manchester
Pte 49601 Martin Kay,59 Barlow St, Bradford, Manchester
Pte 49174 Frederick Kemp,47 Nansen St, Seedley, Salford
L/Cpl 41040 Frederick Kimpton,21 Blue Boar Lane, Leicester
L/Cpl 43029 Henry James Kindleysides, Penrith, Carlisle
Pte 202960 James Leighton, Manchester
Pte 352937 Tom Lord, Bury
Pte 59213 Sidney Bert Martin,157 Owen Rd, Wolverhampton
Pte 35643 Emmanuel Massey,51 Prince St, Ardwick
Pte 401042 John Mercer, 55 Oglet Lane, Liverpool
Pte 48590 Richard Mills,75 Shaw Rd, Oldham
Pte 377948 Frederick Moran (Fred), Salford,Lancashire
Pte 61113 Edward Murphy, Liverpool
Pte 352329 Charles O’Neill, Preston
L/Cpl 9235 Richard Owen, Harpurhey, Manchester
Cpl 33704 Jesse, Edwin Pemberton, 29 Vernon St, Gorton
Pte 37648 John Wesley Pickering, 52 Cranbrook St, Oldham
Sgt 1667 Joseph Quinliven, Burnley
Pte 401099 George Richardson, Ashton
Pte 40850 Charles Rick, 21 Long Row, Newark, Notts
Pte 43783 Thomas Rosewarren, 27 Station Rd, Patricroft
Pte 2354 Bernard John Rouse, Matlock Rd, Matlock, Derbyshire
Pte 39442 Leonard Royle,11 Gilmour Terrace, Clough Rd, Blackley, Manchester
Pte 44112 Herman Schaefer, 212 Palmerston St, Beswick, Manchester
Pte 36287 Herbert Seddon, 54 Regent St, Salford
Pte 35696 Frederick (Fred) Shepherd, Abingdon, Berkshire
L/Cpl 47540 James Archibald Smith, Middlesex
Pte 400966 William Smith, Liverpool
Pte 33847 Abraham Smullen, b. Belfast, Northern Ireland, e. Cheetham, Manchester
L/Sgt 40861 Frank Snowdin (DCM) 87 Moorgate, Retford, Notts
Pte 202875 Bernard Southworth, 30 Hough Lane, Bolton
L/Sgt 43094 James Stalker, Rose Villa, Kirby Stephen, Penrith
Pte 302736 Samuel Steel, 3 Joel Place, Oldham, Lancashire
Pte 303307 Reginald Thomas, 46 Westbourne Grove, Harpurhey
Pte 29617 William Thompson (MM) 4 Nova Scotia St, Failsworth
Pte 49405 Frederick Tuffs, London
L/Cpl 43067 Ephraim Turner,10 Epplestone St, Stockport
Pte 251339 Henry Valentine, 29 Clifton St, Old Trafford
Pte 48397 Arthur Williams, Manchester
L/Cpl 9203 Robert Wilson, Northwich, Cheshire
Pte 17269 William Henry Withington, 46 Islington St, Altrincham, Cheshire
Pte 7167 Thomas Yarwood, Heaton Mersey, Stockport
Pte 203846 Thomas Yates,18 Mill Lane, Leigh, Lancashire
Pte 46650 John Ryder, Signaller, 38 Ossory St, Moss Side, Manchester.
Major Rupert Edward Roberts (died of wounds 26/3/1918)
Pte 48790 James Dawson, d.o.w. 1/4/18, b. Bury, e. 654, Manchester Rd., Hollinwood
Pte. 54699 John Fish, Failsworth, d.o.w. 1/4/18 (See his page on the Oldham HRG website HERE
Pte 49356 Albert Goulding, d.o.w. 11/4/18 b. Salford e. 5, Parcel St., Beswick, Manchester.
L/Cpl 250329 Thomas Gratrix, d.o.w. 28/3/18 Salford
Sgt. 4914 Albert Harding, d.o.w. 29/3/18 Salford
Pte 277099 Thomas Kewley, d.o.w. 30/3/18 62, George Leigh St., Manchester.,
Pte 37814 Crispin Lamb, d.o.w. 23/3/18 Hollinwood
Pte 26164 James Mason, d.o.w. 16/4/18, Wigan
L/Cpl. 9190 George Taylor. d.o.w. 8/4/18, 14, Oak Rd., Crumpsall, Manchester.
Sgt. 6442 Albert Walker, MM, d.o.w. 8/4/18, Salford
Pte 51078 Frederick Whitehead, d.o.w. 24/3/18, formerly G/86544 Middlesex R., 37, Upper Harding St., Northampton.
L/Sgt 6329 Watkin Wilson, d.o.w. 27/3/18, b. Shrewsbury, e. Gorton,
Pte 252213 Stanley Wolstencroft, CSM [Company Sergeant-Major], d.o.w. 27/3/18, "Gessingthorpe," Newmarket Rd., Dyserth, Flints.
* Museum of the Manchester Regiment - The Men Behind the Medals with Wilfrith Elstob's V.C. citation HERE
* The Manchesters - Manchester Hill 21st March 1918 HERE
* 'Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth, Nineteenth Battalions : the Manchester Regiment : 1st City Brigade : A Record of 1914 - 1918', published in 1923
* Commonwealth War Graves Commission HERE
* Lancashire BMD HERE
* Lancashire Online Parish Clerk HERE
* Ancestry HERE
* Find My Past HERE